HSPA Architectural Evolution

With the advent of LTE we are experiencing high speeds over the packet network. But what about the legacy WCMDA network. Operators have invested a lot of CAPEX in setting up a network which can provide a coverage for WCDMA/HSPA. In this context, the HSPA evolution plays a quite important role.

HSPA networks will form an integral part of future 3G systems and as they evolve, should provide a smooth migration path towards LTE. HSPA operators are just as interested in the potential performance and cost savings which may be achieved through HSPA Evolution as they are in the future LTE system.

HSPA was first introduced in release 7 when HSDPA (High speed downlink packet access) was combined with EUL(enhanced uplink) to form a FDD system

Evolution Paths

  1. HSPA Spectrum Efficiency, Peak Data Rate and Latency should continue to evolve favorably.
  2. HSPA and its evolution should facilitate the joint technology operation with LTE and offer a smooth migration path towards LTE (Long Term Evolution) i.e. The possibility to adopt common elements or a common functional split with LTE and the possibility to re-use the evolved Core Network defined as part of the System Architecture Evolution (SAE) study should be analyzed as well;
  3. Evolved HSPA should be able to operate as a packet-only network based on utilization of the high speed data channels only (HS-DSCH, E-DCH and associated channels);
  4. HSPA Evolution shall be backward compatible in the sense that legacy terminals (R99-DCH and HSPA mobiles) shall be able to share the same carrier with terminals implementing the latest features of the HSPA Evolution track without any performance degradation;
  5. Ideally, existing infrastructure should only need a simple upgrade to support the features defined as part of the HSPA Evolution.
  6. The main objective of the HSPA evolution is to improve further the latency and the bit rate with limited and controlled

 

Architectural Evolution

  1. Current Architecture – Same as Rel. 6 
    1. Option 1 is to use the same architecture without going any further changes in the network.
    2. The UTRAN consists of a set of Radio Network Subsystems connected to the Core Network through the Iu.
    3. A RNS consists of a Radio Network Controller one or more Node Bs
    4. A Node B is connected to the RNC through the Iub interface.
    5. The RNC is responsible for the Handover decisions that require signalling to the UE.
    6. A RNC may include a combining/splitting function to support combination/splitting of information streams Inside the UTRAN, the RNCs of the Radio Network Subsystems can be interconnected together through the Iur.
    7. Iu(s) and Iur are logical interfaces. Iur can be conveyed over direct physical connection between RNCs or virtual networks using any suitable transport network.
  2. Iu with enhanced SRNC separate from the enhanced collapsed CRNC/DRNC/Node B 
    1. The RAN-CN functional can be split and is thus kept to readily reuse the proven Iu interface
      with no additional delay.
    2. Besides, only the functions which effectively contribute to the reduction of the latency and the increase of bit rate have been moved from the RNC down to the nodeB in order to minimize the hardware and software impacts.
    3. An RNC RLC mirror function is placed in nodeB to improve the latency induced by repetitions for both the user plane and the control plane, – the scheduling of all common resources is moved to the nodeB (enhanced scheduler) where they benefit from the HARQ function.
    4. The centralized scheduling of common resources in the nodeB also leads to power management
      optimizations and corresponding gains in bit rate.
    5. Other enhancements already identified within the R7 study items (signalling enhancements, Continuous Packet Connectivity, delay optimization for procedures,…)
    6. Moreover, these changes also result in the possible move of the CRNC and DRNC functions into the nodeB which can lead to a simplified architecture.
  3. PS User Plane /Control Plane split, CP functions in RNC, direct UP tunnel PS CN – Node B
    1. The current UTRAN architecture, inherited from GPRS, is not optimised for very pervasive broadband packet services.
    2. The presence of anRNC in the User Plane path plays as a bottleneck for the traffic throughput because of
      1. limitations given by switching and routing capacity of an RNC.
      2. limitations given by RLC/MAC and Iub Framing Protocol termination in the RNC.
    3. A possible solution to those limitations is allowing User Plane and Control Plane to scale separately and terminating the User Plane protocols in the Node Bs. That is introducing a ‘flat’ architecture for the UP part.
    4. As a consequence, the Node B will have a direct IP broadband connection to the Packet Core.
    5. Latency and delay on the user plane will improve since radio protocols and re-transmission will be terminated in the Node B, similar to what has been decided for LTE.
    6. At the same time, other important aspects such as mobility, efficient coordination between different layer (pico/micro/macro coverage), reuse of legacy investments should not be overlooked.
  4. Iu with RNC U-Plane & C-Plane functions in Node-B
    1. In this architecture the RNC functions are in the NodeB, which can be named as evolved HSPA NodeB.
    2. Evolved HSPA system enables to use 3GPP Release 5 and later Releases of air interface with no modifications for HSPA traffic.
    3. The intended use scenario for HSPA capable terminals is to utilise HSPA both in uplink (E-DCH) and in downlink (HS-DSCH).
    4. The evolved HSPA NodeB has Iu-PS interface towards packet switched CN.
    5. Iu-PS user plane is terminated either in SGSN or in case of one tunnel approach (Rel-7) in GGSN.
    6. Evolved stand-alone HSPA is designed with full mobility support, including handovers within the system.
    7. Intra-system handover in evolved HSPA is executed between cells, which belong to different evolved HSPA NodeBs (inter-NodeB handover).
    8. Handover towards other 3G networks is standard serving RNC relocation. The communication between evolved HSPA NodeBs takes place over Iur interface.
    9. Evolved HSPA architecture is a solution for a flat radio access architecture of UTRAN network. In the solution all or part of RNC functions are in the NodeB, which in the present document is named as evolved HSPA NodeB.

 

In summary, the described solution is characterised by the following features:
– Evolved Node Bs have a direct IP broadband connection towards the Packet Core for PS traffic.
– A flat RAN architecture, allowing delay optimisation and scalability without capacity bottlenecks.
– RNC is not needed at all for pure PS carrier, i.e. in stand-alone deployment.
– RNC is used to implement CS support and therefore CS core is not changed at all in carrier sharing deployment.
– Stand-alone scenario requires minimal changes or no changes for the current specifications and network elements

Abbreviations

 

HSPA : High Speed Packet Access
LTE : Long Term Evolution
MIMO : Multiple Input Multiple Output
NAS : Non Access Stratum
OPEX : Operational expenditure
QoS : Quality of Service
PS : Packet Switched
TCP : Transmission Control Protocol
UE : User Equipment

Reference:

 ETSI TR 125 999 V7.1.0 (2008-04)

 

Wear Sunscreen

This piecewas presented as Kurt Vonnegut’s commencement address at MIT in 1997. It’s great stuff, but apparently it wasn’t written or delivered by Vonnegut. It’s still a beautiful piece… 


Ladies and gentlemen of the class of ’97:

Wear sunscreen.

If I could offer you only one tip for the future, sunscreen would be it. The long-term benefits of sunscreen have been proved by scientists, whereas the rest of my advice has no basis more reliable than my own meandering experience. I will dispense this advice now.

Enjoy the power and beauty of your youth. Oh, never mind. You will not understand the power and beauty of your youth until they’ve faded. But trust me, in 20 years, you’ll look back at photos of yourself and recall in a way you can’t grasp now how much possibility lay before you and how fabulous you really looked. You are not as fat as you imagine.

Don’t worry about the future. Or worry, but know that worrying is as effective as trying to solve an algebra equation by chewing bubble gum. The real troubles in your life are apt to be things that never crossed your worried mind, the kind that blindside you at 4 pm on some idle Tuesday.

Do one thing every day that scares you.

Sing.

Don’t be reckless with other people’s hearts. Don’t put up with people who are reckless with yours.

Floss.

Don’t waste your time on jealousy. Sometimes you’re ahead, sometimes you’re behind. The race is long and, in the end, it’s only with yourself.

Remember compliments you receive. Forget the insults. If you succeed in doing this, tell me how.

Keep your old love letters. Throw away your old bank statements.

Stretch.

Don’t feel guilty if you don’t know what you want to do with your life. The most interesting people I know didn’t know at 22 what they wanted to do with their lives. Some of the most interesting 40-year-olds I know still don’t.

Get plenty of calcium. Be kind to your knees. You’ll miss them when they’re gone.

Maybe you’ll marry, maybe you won’t. Maybe you’ll have children, maybe you won’t. Maybe you’ll divorce at 40, maybe you’ll dance the funky chicken on your 75th wedding anniversary. Whatever you do, don’t congratulate yourself too much, or berate yourself either. Your choices are half chance. So are everybody else’s.

Enjoy your body. Use it every way you can. Don’t be afraid of it or of what other people think of it. It’s the greatest instrument you’ll ever own.

Dance, even if you have nowhere to do it but your living room.

Read the directions, even if you don’t follow them.

Do not read beauty magazines. They will only make you feel ugly.

Get to know your parents. You never know when they’ll be gone for good. Be nice to your siblings. They’re your best link to your past and the people most likely to stick with you in the future.

Understand that friends come and go, but with a precious few you should hold on. Work hard to bridge the gaps in geography and lifestyle, because the older you get, the more you need the people who knew you when you were young.

Live in New York City once, but leave before it makes you hard. Live in Northern California once, but leave before it makes you soft. Travel.

Accept certain inalienable truths: Prices will rise. Politicians will philander. You, too, will get old. And when you do, you’ll fantasize that when you were young, prices were reasonable, politicians were noble, and children respected their elders.

Respect your elders.

Don’t expect anyone else to support you. Maybe you have a trust fund. Maybe you’ll have a wealthy spouse. But you never know when either one might run out.

Don’t mess too much with your hair or by the time you’re 40 it will look 85.

Be careful whose advice you buy, but be patient with those who supply it. Advice is a form of nostalgia. Dispensing it is a way of fishing the past from the disposal, wiping it off, painting over the ugly parts and recycling it for more than it’s worth.

But trust me on the sunscreen.

 

Tea and Cigarette

“A Cigarette, Please” asked Tuhin.

As he lit the cigarette he moved his sight from the cigarette vendor towards the road. The road was
noisy. For a moment his eyes were fixed on the road but mind was wandering somewhere else until an unrecognized voice brought him back.

“Hey” , his face moved towards the unrecognized voice, ” You look sad. I saw you coming from the hospital. Everything OK? ”

Tuhin nodded , “My father, is admitted there.” and looked away, taking a deep inhale from the cigarette.

“Oh , I am sorry , Is he alright ?”

“Yeah , He will be, that’s what Doctors say , Lets hope” . His eyes moved towards the sky, staring at the dark starless night. He took off his glasses and squeezed his eyes with his fingers.

The strange guy , lit his cigarette and moved closer , “So, what happened ?”

“He fell from stairs”, Tuhin replied.

“What does the doctor say?”, The stranger asked.

Tuhin was feeling uncomfortable. He wanted some time alone, but the stranger was interrupting him for having a time with himself.

“They are going to keep him in the ICU, for the next few days. He is able to talk and is responding well . May be in a few days he will be back home”

“OK, hope he gets well soon”, realizing he has not introduced himself yet , the stranger offered for a handshake.

“By the way , I am Arun.”

“My name is Tuhin” , shaking his hand Tuhin offered him to have a cup of tea together.

“I hope , I am not intruding much , but I think , your father needs the time , you should be with him.”

Tuhin stared Arun, he had no answer. It felt like the stranger has punched him directly in the face. Looking away he replied , ” I am in a big dilemma.” his tone sudden became weary.

Arun patted him on the shoulder and said , “I can understand , It is one hard time of your life and I am sure, everything will be perfect soon.”

Arun offered a glass of tea to him.

“I know he will be alright, but now something else is bothering me.” Tuhin stopped, took a sip of tea, he then took a long smoke from his cigarette.

“Go on, speak it out.”

“I work in the US, I have a stable life, my kid studies there. I have my parents here in India and now I feel that they need me.” He took a puff again and continued ,”I have been assigned a responsibility by my company , we are going to open a new office in the states, and now I have to come back to attend this emergency.”, he kicked the air disappointingly.

“So do you like the lifestyle there?” Arun asked, rolling the small transparent tea glass between his hands, enjoying the warmth of it.

“Yes, I do , it’s the US , and I am on peak of my career, an opportunity that many would envy”

Arun did not interrupt and sipped his tea, Tuhin continued, “but after this incident, I feel my parents need me and I should wind up from overseas and settle in India, They are not willing to travel to the states also. I am confused, what should I do , my parents needs me.”

After a pause , Tuhin moved his face towards Arun and asked “what’s your suggestions?”

Arun asked “In this age, no one would want to leave his home, people get attached to the place, that it would be very hard for them to adapt. Anyways, What about your wife? What’s her opinion about it?”

“My wife is quite understanding, she will accept whatever I will decide and will help me in that” said Tuhin.

“Thats good, so all the decision making rests with you.”

“Yes”.

“So let me ask you a question, how much are you earning, and how much would you earn if you are in India”

“Pretty much, may be 5 times that I might get here in India”

“So you might have saved, right? How long can you stay without earning and still live a good life with your family?”

“May be a year.”

“Good,so you are on a safer side, you have a year’s time, I think you can do anything you wish to, look for a job in India, it might be possible you won’t get that much money, but you might get a decent amount considering your work-ex. If you want you can start something of your own as well.”

“That sounds risky, you know, I have a mortgage there , I have to settle it up, I have to take care of my kid’s education too, If I stay in US, my kid has a brighter future.”

“Well, lets make it simpler for you. Suppose, there is a market crash and suddenly there are no jobs in your domain ,so what would you do ?”

“Well, I would try to look for job in any other domain, or I will try to do something of my own”

“So what is stopping you, right now?” He paused and continued, “ You have enough funds to support your family till you set up your business or change your field. I feel , the other problems are very minor and can be sorted out. It won’t be simple for you but, that is the adventure of living a life, the way you want, if you want something in life, you have to move away from your comfort zone and that job is your ‘comfort zone’ right now. If you want to be with your family you have to take a chance and I believe it would be worth it.”

Tuhin was listening, his eyes focused on the dark part of the road, somewhere inside in his heart he knew that Arun was right, but to take such a bold decision seemed a foolishness to him “That’s foolishness” he stood up, threw the remains of his cigarette and crushed his with his feet and then turned towards Arun, looking down on him “If I fail, I might ruin my family’s future, my kid’s future, what would happen to him”

“Fear of failure should not stop you.”, said Arun, gulping the last sip of tea.

Arun moved forward and paid the cigarette vendor. Tuhin was watching him, he was silent,his mind was unable to process anything. Arun came back to him and kept his hand on his shoulder, ” Look friend, life is too short. A few years ago, you were in lap of your parents. You should also not forget the countless sacrifices made by your parents, and they never asked for any favor in the stead. I believe , it is better to act than repent, probably the moment you will spend with your parents would be one of the most valuable moments in near future.”

Arun smiled and continued. “Don’t worry, everything will be alright, Chill and go back to your father, he needs you at this moment. I will take my leave. All the best to you” . He offered his hand and said “It was nice meeting you , have a good life.” and started walking away.

“Wait”, said Tuhin, he took a small jog towards Arun and asked ” Where do you work, can we stay in contact.”

Arun, took out his business card and handed it over to Tuhin, “Give me a call, and let me know what you have decided”, he smiled and kept walking.

“Thanks”, shouted Tuhin, raising his hand to which Arun also responded, “Welcome”. Arun was now lost in the crowd. Tuhin , walked towards a better lit area to read the card. “Arun Sharma , General Manager, Neotech Solutions”

“Neotech”, the name was recognizable. Tuhin realized it was the same company to which they outsource most of the work. He flicked the card with fingers and contenting smile came to his face. Keeping the card in his pocket , he shook his head and went inside the hospital.

A list of useful websites

1. screenr.com – record movies of your desktop and send them straight to YouTube.
2. ctrlq.org/screenshots – for capturing screenshots of web pages on mobile and desktops.
3. goo.gl – shorten long URLs and convert URLs into QR codes.
4. unfurlr.com – find the original URL that’s hiding behind a short URL.
5. qClock – find the local time of a city using a Google Map.
6. copypastecharacter.com – copy special characters that aren’t on your keyboard.
7. postpost.com – a better search engine for twitter.
8. lovelycharts.com – create flowcharts, network diagrams, sitemaps, etc.
9. iconfinder.com – the best place to find icons of all sizes.
10. office.com – download templates, clipart and images for your Office documents.
11. followupthen.com – the easiest way to setup email reminders.
12. jotti.org – scan any suspicious file or email attachment for viruses.
13. wolframalpha.com – gets answers directly without searching – see more wolfram tips.
14. printwhatyoulike.com – print web pages without the clutter.
15. joliprint.com – reformats news articles and blog content as a newspaper.
16. ctrql.org/rss – a search engine for RSS feeds.
17. e.ggtimer.com – a simple online timer for your daily needs.
18. coralcdn.org – if a site is down due to heavy traffic, try accessing it through coral CDN.
19. random.org – pick random numbers, flip coins, and more.
20. pdfescape.com – lets you can quickly edit PDFs in the browser itself.
21. viewer.zoho.com – Preview PDFs and Presentations directly in the browser.
22. tubemogul.com – simultaneously upload videos to YouTube and other video sites.
23. dabbleboard.com – your virtual whiteboard.
24. scr.im – share you email address online without worrying about spam.
25. spypig.com – now get read receipts for your email.
26. sizeasy.com – visualize and compare the size of any product.
27. myfonts.com/WhatTheFont – quickly determine the font name from an image.
28. google.com/webfonts – a good collection of open source fonts.
29. regex.info – find data hidden in your photographs – see more EXIF tools.
30. livestream.com – broadcast events live over the web, including your desktop screen.
31. iwantmyname.com – helps you search domains across all TLDs.
32. homestyler.com – design from scratch or re-model your home in 3d.
33. join.me – share you screen with anyone over the web.
34. onlineocr.net – recognize text from scanned PDFs – see other OCR tools.
35. flightstats.com – Track flight status at airports worldwide.
36. wetransfer.com – for sharing really big files online.
37. hundredzeros.com – best-sellers on all subjects that you can download for free.
38. polishmywriting.com – check your writing for spelling or grammatical errors.
39. marker.to – easily highlight the important parts of a web page for sharing.
40. typewith.me – work on the same document with multiple people.
41. whichdateworks.com – planning an event? find a date that works for all.
42. everytimezone.com – a less confusing view of the world time zones.
43. gtmetrix.com – the perfect tool for measuring your site performance online.
44. noteflight.com – print music sheets, write your own music online (review).
45. imo.im – chat with your buddies on Skype, Facebook, Google Talk, etc. from one place.
46. translate.google.com – translate web pages, PDFs and Office documents.
47. kleki.com – create paintings and sketches with a wide variety of brushes.
48. similarsites.com – discover new sites that are similar to what you like already.
49. wordle.net – quick summarize long pieces of text with tag clouds.
50. bubbl.us – create mind-maps, brainstorm ideas in the browser.
51. kuler.adobe.com – get color ideas, also extract colors from photographs.
52. liveshare.com – share your photos in an album instantly.
53. lmgtfy.com – when your friends are too lazy to use Google on their own.
54. midomi.com – when you need to find the name of a song.
55. bing.com/images – automatically find perfectly-sized wallpapers for mobiles.
56. faxzero.com – send an online fax for free – see more fax services.
57. feedmyinbox.com – get RSS feeds as an email newsletter.
58. ge.tt – quickly send a file to someone, they can even preview it before downloading.
59. pipebytes.com – transfer files of any size without uploading to a third-party server.
60. tinychat.com – setup a private chat room in micro-seconds.
61. privnote.com – create text notes that will self-destruct after being read.
62. boxoh.com – track the status of any shipment on Google Maps – alternative.
63. chipin.com – when you need to raise funds online for an event or a cause.
64. downforeveryoneorjustme.com – find if your favorite website is offline or not?
65. ewhois.com – find the other websites of a person with reverse Analytics lookup.
66. whoishostingthis.com – find the web host of any website.
67. google.com/history – found something on Google but can’t remember it now?
68. aviary.com/myna – an online audio editor that lets record, and remix audio clips online.
69. disposablewebpage.com – create a temporary web page that self-destruct.
70. urbandictionary.com – find definitions of slangs and informal words.
71. seatguru.com – consult this site before choosing a seat for your next flight.
72. sxc.hu – download stock images absolutely free.
73. zoom.it – view very high-resolution images in your browser without scrolling.
74. scribblemaps.com – quickly create custom Google Maps online.
75. alertful.com – quickly setup email reminders for important events.
76. picmonkey.com – Picnik is offline but PicMonkey is an even better image editor.
77. formspring.me – you can ask or answer personal questions here.
78. sumopaint.com – an excellent layer-based online image editor.
79. snopes.com – find if that email offer you received is real or just another scam.
80. typingweb.com – master touch-typing with these practice sessions.
81. mailvu.com – send video emails to anyone using your web cam.
82. timerime.com – create timelines with audio, video and images.
83. stupeflix.com – make a movie out of your images, audio and video clips.
84. safeweb.norton.com – check the trust level of any website.
85. teuxdeux.com – a beautiful to-do app that looks like your paper dairy.

86. deadurl.com – you’ll need this when your bookmarked web pages are deleted.87. minutes.io – quickly capture effective notes during meetings.
88. youtube.com/leanback – Watch YouTube channels in TV mode.
89. youtube.com/disco – quickly create a video playlist of your favorite artist.
90. talltweets.com – Send tweets longer than 140 characters.
91. pancake.io – create a free and simple website using your Dropbox account.
92. builtwith.com – find the technology stack of any website.
93. woorank.com – research a website from the SEO perspective.
94. mixlr.com – broadcast live audio over the web.
95. radbox.me – bookmark online videos and watch them later (review).
96. tagmydoc.com – add QR codes to your documents and presentations (review).
97. notes.io – the easiest way to write short text notes in the browser.
98. ctrlq.org/html-mail – send rich-text mails to anyone, anonymously.
99. fiverr.com – hire people to do little things for $5.
100. otixo.com – easily manage your online files on Dropbox, Google Docs, etc.
101.ifttt.com – create a connection between all your online accounts.

Source of Inspiration for some of the famous Indian Songs

The Shadows -return to the Alamo

Copied into “Akele Hai to Kya Gum Hai”

 

Perhaps

Babuji dheere chalna – A classical melody!!

Sarang hae yo

Pehli nazar me aisa jadoo kar diya

My Lecon

Bhul Bhulaiyya – Hare Krishna Hare Ram

Lee Hom wang’s “Zhu lin shen chu”

Zara zara touch me (Race)Zara Zara Touch Me

Tak Bisakh

Wo lamhe – Kya mujhe pyaar hai

Sacral Nirvana (Oliver Shanti & Friends)

Tu hi meri Shab hai subah hai – Gangster